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"This website is the Wikipedia of Indian Cyber Laws".. A Visitor's remark

"Watch This Site as a Daily Habit. It may save careers".. A Banker's remark as an advise to fellow Bankerssed

Naavi is a Cyberlaw consultant based in Bangalore and specializes as Cyber law compliance advisor for the industry.

How Do you React to a Sec 79 Notice if you are an intermediary?

Naavi's Theory of Regulated Anonymity

Sec 43A Compliance Framework

Arise, Awake and Stop Not until Indian E Banking is made Safe

Misconceptions About Electronic Signature

April 30: During the recent discussions with several informed members of the public, there appeared to be widely prevailing misconception about the provision of Section 3A of ITA 2008 regarding "Electronic Signatures".

It appears that people have misinterpreted the term "Electronic Signature" to mean any form of authentication other than "Digital Signatures". Some are speaking as if "Click Wrap" agreements will now be recognized. Some Bankers are on the prowl to seize any opportunity to get the 2-Factor authentication itself recognized as digital signature as they tried during the G Gopalakrishna Working Group discussions.

 Let's therefore explore this new section introduced in ITA 2008 a little more in detail...Details

Zero Value Statistics on Cyber Crimes!

April 30: In replying to a query in the Parliament the Minister has indicated that there were 966 cases booked in India in 2010 as "Cyber Crimes" some under IPC and some under ITA 2000. These are the records from NCRB report which showed an increase of cases registered from 420 to 966 between 2009 and 2010. 153 of these cases were registered in Karnataka,148 in Kerala and 142 in Maharashtra. These statistics are however relevant only to study the number of cases registered and donot reflect the status of Cyber Crimes in India. Huge number of Bank fraud cases have not been registered and hence the statistics has no real value for analysing the Cyber Crime status in India. Naavi.org has therefore been proposing setting up of a "E Banking Emergency Response Team" to receive information about E Banking frauds directly from the public, report it on a public website, offer legal assistance to E banking victims, develop security norms for the Banks who are interested in making E Banking safer. Eventually this exercise would lead to safer E Banking in India.

Internet Censorship in India

April 30: Here is an article on Internet Censorship which may be of interest to people following the debate on the unconstitutionality of Sec 79 rules. Naavi.org points out that spineless intermediaries are also to blame for the lack of application of their minds when a content objection is received. Recently Mr Ajit Balakrishnan of Rediff.com stated on a TV program that Rediff.com does not blindly follow the take down notice and will examine the request properly. This approach is what has been suggested by Naavi.org.

Basic Security Flaws in Aadhar Enrolment exposed

April 29: After the bizarre revelation about "Coriander" being issued an Aadhar identity, more frauds have come to light in the enrolments in Hyderabad. It is stated that over 30000 fraudulent enrolments have occured. One the flaws that has been revealed is that when an agent tries enrollment and the biometric fails on two occassions, in the third occassion the system proceeds with the default biometric.

In otherwords, after two unsuccessful log in attempts, instead of the system being locked up, it opens up without biometric authentication. Such a system is never heard of in any security scenario. This is a clear indication that the Aadhar security does not meet even the most basic requirements to qualify the system as acceptable. Add to this frequent loss of laptops with data the system appears to have been compromised to the core and Mr Nandan may not have any control over the project being useful.  It is time that the Government scraps the enrolment process forthwith.

We may recall that in one of the very first meetings with the Aadhar team in Bangalore, the security requirements had been raised by the group of specialists to whom Mr Nandan had presented the action plan. We were assured that there is adequate attention given to the security issues and he does not have any apprehensions. This confidence has been proven wrong. Related Article

SC acquits Mr Avnish Bajaj

April 28: The historic Baazee.com case in which the CEO Mr Avnish Bajaj was facing the charges under Section 67 of ITA 2008 for liabilities arising out of the posting of obscene video for sale by one of the members was finally disposed off after 7 years with the Supreme Court dismissing the charges under both IPC and ITA 2000. It is to be noted that the acquittal appears to be based on a technical irregularity in pressing of the charge. According to the report in indiatimes.com , a three-judge bench of justices Dalveer Bhandari, S J Mukhopadhyaya and Dipak Mishra quashed the cases registered against Bajaj under Section 292 (sale etc of obscene material) IPC and various provisions of the Information Technology Act on the ground that the company was not made a party to the case and only the Director of the company was roped in for the said alleged commission offence.

The prosecution appears to have erred on the fact that first Section 67 offence should have been charged against the Company and then with the operation of Section 85 of ITA 2000, it would have flowed onto the Director. Without making the Company a party to the offence Section 85 does not become operative. By not including the Company as "Accused", prosecution appears to have committed a technical mistake.

Why Russians are considered masters of cyber crimes

April 26: According to this report from Forbes, the share of Russians in the global cyber crime earnings of US$12.5 billion is around US$ 4.5 billion. Related Article:   Some Stats

DIT's incapability to manage Cyber Laws

April 26: Repeated incidents of misuse of ITA 2008 highlights the inadequacies of the laws or bad framing of the laws. The responsibility for this has to lie squarely on the DIT. Unfortunately DIT does not have a good consultative process and relies on some chosen favourite advisers to draft the laws and regulations. The proof is that the constitutionality of regulations are being repeatedly questioned. If DIT can come down from its pedestal and is ready to listen to wiser counsel from a large section of the society, perhaps the errors could have been reduced. This article in Indian Express captures the observations of experts from the field. A report in IE

I would like to add the following points to the article.

1. The system of adjudication managed by IT Secretaries in States under the guidance of DIT is also in doldrums because of the lack of understanding of law by the IT Secretaries.
2.The system of Cyber Appellate Tribunal has been kept deactivated by DIT probably lead by vested interests who donot like this forum to be active.

I would like to add a clarification that CRAC under Sec 88 was formed and notified on 17th October 2000 but is being sidelined by DIT. Even the amendments of 2008 are therefore ultravires the act since it was not vetted by CRAC.

Bank Inspection Reports to come under RTI

April 26: In what could be considered as a significant and people friendly development, the Central information Commissioner has held that inspection reports of Banks should be made available under RTI. So far Banks have been avoiding sharing information about frauds under the argument that it would undermine the confidence of the public. RBI has also been avoiding any release of documents pertaining to Bank frauds in India. The absence of data on Bank frauds has created hurdles in the possibility of insurance companies coming up with products for insuring the banks against fraud losses. Phishing victims are being stone walled by Banks stating that their security is impregnable and to support this myth are not releasing any fraud related information to the public. Now this decision of the CIC should enable RTI applications to be filed on every Bank to find out the extent of Phishing frauds reported and how the Banks have disposed of each of them. Related Report :

In a similar case J& K Information Commissioner has also held that J& K Bank is  a public authority and has to share information under STI. Report regarding J&K IC

Do We need anti virus for TVs?

April 23: It appears that  vulnerabilities have been found in Samsung and Sony TVs which can be exploited to cause disruptions and shutting off the TV. Hope the manufacturers take note. Related Article

Has the time come to work on amendments to ITA 2008?

April 23: Civil activists alarmed by the misuse of ITA 2008 by politicians to curb any writings on the Internet perceived to affect the reputation of the ruling government, and by some business interests to protect their business interests, have started asking for the withdrawal of the rules notified by DIT on April 11, 2011 particularly under the "Intermediary Rules" under Section 79 of ITA 2008. 

Naavi.org strongly recommends that even the "Reasonable Security Practices" notification under Section 43A which was notified along side the Intermediary rules need to be scrapped as it unashamedly promotes one particular security framework involving enormous outgo of funds out of India. The Section 79 rules are linked to Section 43A rules and makes it mandatory for all intermediaries to undergo ISO 27001 audits or be damned. This is an unconstitutional promotion and a scam bigger than 2G scam.

Further the unconstitutional nature of Section 79 actually flows from the amended Section 79 which gives the executive powers to curb the constitutional right granted under Article 21 without judicial intervention. The amendment itself was introduced without due process of consultation with Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee constituted under Section 88 of ITA 2000 by DIT.

It is therefore necessary that the entire amendments of 2008 be considered as unconstitutional and re-worked. I request MPs Mr P. Rajeeve and Rajeev Chandrashekar to take note of this and move the motion in the Parliament accordingly.

I was one of the supporters of ITA 2008 amendments when it was enacted because certain provisions were considered necessary from the point of view of national Security. However politicians have interpreted “National Security” mean security of the politicians in power and hence the provisions are being repeatedly misused. It has therefore become difficult to trust the commitment of the Government to democratic principles and there is therefore a need for strong checks and balances in the Act. This can be achieved by a complete overhaul of ITA 2000 by a major amendment now.

Activists Demand Scrapping of ITA 2008 rules

April 22: Free speech activists held a demonstration in Bangalore demanding the withdrawal of ITA 2008 rules as it is opposed to Free Speech principles. The main contention is that under the Section 79 rules, an intermediary is forced to remove content without judicial intervention and based only on the complaint of a victim.

Naavi has however pointed out that it is only a "tendency to crawl when asked to bend" of the intermediaries that has resulted in such a situation and also suggested a "Due Process" to deal with demand for removal of content. (Ref: How Do you React to a Sec 79 Notice if you are an intermediary?). If we have spineless intermediaries, it will only encourage Government to be more repressive. It is therefore necessary for Intermediaries to rethink on their content regulation policies. They can be law compliant without being subservient to political interests if they have the will. Related Article in DH : Report in ET

A discussion had also been organized by CIS (Center for Internet Society) on the same subject in which Naavi also had participated.

Game Theory to Predict when Cyber Criminals Start Striking

April 22: According to Game Theory analysts, the reason why malware for Apple systems are on the increase from near zero in 2003 to around 250 per month at present lies in the possibility that effectiveness of anti virus systems have improved in recent times. It is estimated that at present the Windows Essentials is capable of detecting upto 93% of malware variants while other softwares claim upto 99.7%. It is the theory of some observers that with the decrease in the probability of successful attacks on Windows PCs, cyber criminals have shifted attention to Mac which may have only around 11% market share but the probability of success of planting a malicious code is already beyond the break even level for Windows PC. As the market share of Apple increases it is estimated that more and more malicious codes for Apple would be created. Related Article : latest antivirus comparative : Related Research Paper

War on Internet

April 22: It appears that for the last several days, DIT is working overtime to get the Abhishek Manu Singhvi's controvertial videos removed from Internet. This explains why DIT is not finding time to address issues such as appointment of CAT chair person.

While the GOI has taken control of mainstream internet media such as You Tube and ensured that the Video is removed, many persons continue their attempt to reach the video to people through other means. In fact it appears that this could test  the relative strength of  the Government which wants to block some information from publication and the power of Internet as the voice of the people who want to defeat the Government intention.

While it may be debated whether the current cause of these activists is noble or otherwise, the developments are throwing light on what may happen in future if there is a political battle between the Government and the common people and the Government becomes repressive of public expression.

In the meantime, the decision of the Court to grant a permanent injunction on the publication means that Courts are responsive to the demand for blocking sex related content, particularly when the content relates to  an influential politician . Had it been a common man in similar circumstances, it would have been difficult to convince the Court that there was any reputation to be protected in such cases.  But it would be interesting to observe if the same Courts also support other assaults on freedom of expression when the content is related to political dissent. This will also determine if  obscene content, defamatory content , Cartoons, and political dissent are considered different forms of speech and deserve different treatment in law regarding  the guaranteed constitutional right to "Freedom of Expression".

Ravi Belegere Fined

April 21: The famous public speaker Mr Ravi Belegere is reported to have been fined Rs 35 lakhs for an article published in a tabloid "Hai Bangalore" in 2003 criticizing the "Play Win" lottery. Play Win not only operates online but also engages services on the physical space for selling its lottery tickets.

In most states in India including Karnataka, Lottery is banned. It is prima facie considered as anti social. It is therefore surprising that a journalistic article in public interest should invoke the wrath of a Court to the extent of fining such a large amount.  It is also not possible to judge whether the lottery systems run on the Internet are run on fair terms since their software is not subject to scrutiny of a source code audit by a reputed organization and can therefore be unreliable. Though Playwin declares that its systems are audited by E&Y, unless a copy of the audit report is  made public, we cannot find out the scope of the audit and if it suffices to meet the expectations of the public. though the lottery is perhaps licensed in Sikkim, it is not clear how it can operate online and offer its services to states where lottery is banned.

If any reader has a copy of the judgment and copy of the said article, I request them to send it to me so that we can analyze and understand under what circumstances, criticizing a business which is popularly considered immoral by the society becomes a "Defamation".  Related Article

GPS Coordinates in iPhone photo nets a hacker

April 21: A hacker who posted an objectionable photograph was traced by FBI and arrested using the GPS coordinates embedded in the photograph taken in an iPhone. Earlier there are reports about a print out being used to track the printer. It is said that all colour laser printers print yellow dots as code in the background which may be used to match the printer in forensic investigations. (refer article here)   It is not clear if this is also possible in a black and white print out. Related Article1 Related Article 2

If you want to check if your colour laser prints such codes, you can visit http://dotspotter.ultrasec.de/

US Court rules "No Data theft" if access is authorized

April 21: A US Court of Appeals has ruled in a case that an employee with valid access cannot be held liable when he downloads data. This is an interpretation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act regarding unauthorized downloading of a list of names and contact information in a recruitment firm. This is an interesting judgement which has relevance to India also. It is interesting to note that under Section 43 in ITA 2000, India  has separate provisions under Section 43(a) for unauthorized access and 43(b) for unauthorized downloading. Such a provision should have held the download as a contravention even if the access is authorized. But the Judge appears to have interpreted the legal provisions from the point of view of "legislative intent" and held that a "Corporate Policy" that contains unrealistic impositions are not fit to be supported in law. This is like the "Standard form Contract" with all legal jargons thrown into the Policy whether they are contextually relevant or not. The ruling can provide relief to many cases even in India where the employers have tried to institute false cases against employees only because they had resigned. Related Article

Call for Scrapping April 11 Rules

April 21: The rules notified by DIT under Section 43A and 79 on April 11, 2011 have been a subject matter of controversy ever since the rules were notified. Naavi.org raised serious objections to Section 43A rules dubbing it as a scam bigger than the 2G Scam in view of the promotion of ISO 27001 audit through legislation. Section 79 rules have been objected to because of the apparent power given to any perceived victim of defamation to get a web content blocked. Additionally Section 66A misuse by Mamta Bannerjee and the move of DIT against Face Book et a on political cartoons, has raised further questions on the integrity of the Government in applying the provisions in a fair manner. Sec 69,69A as well as Sec 66F hold further threats for ordinary citizens if the Government wants to misuse their provisions. 66F can impose "Life Imprisonment" for "Cyber Terrorism" and the section is so drafted that it can be invoked against political opponents at the drop of the hat. There is therefore no surprise that there are talks of the rules being questioned as "Unconstitutional" and demands have been raised for scrapping of the rules.

Hindu in its article today has advocated a National Consultation on such anti democratic legislation. We look forward to such a process being initiated by a credible body of the public.

Status of CAT

April 20: Naavi.org has been reporting on the status of CAT for quite some time now and Naavi has personally taken up the cause of the public and the difficulties experienced by Cyber Crime victims due to the non appointment of the presiding officer of CAT at all levels. However there seems to be no urgency on the part of the Government of India to re-activate CAT. After a long time a major publication like ET seems to have thought it fit to carry a small article on the subject. Hopefully this will wake up the officials into some kind of action soon. Article

Hacking a Hotel System to access customer information

April 20: Researchers have exposed a case where a trojan package that can infect hotel management software with an ability to steal the credit card information of clients was being sold.  This represents a strategy to access the customer credentials through indirect means without hacking into customer's own machines which might have been well protected. It is necessary for IN CERT to take up suitable security audits of hotels in India and other establishments where similar vulnerabilities may exist. The incident also highlights how purchse of a software needs to be screened for security issues by IS teams in organizations. Report

Security Expert exposes Banking Vulnerabilities in Iran

April 20: A security expert in IRAN exposed vulnerabilities in the Banking system by demonstrating how the credentials of the customers can be compromised by hacking into 3 million accounts in 22 different Banks though the information was not misused by the expert. The expert had before the disclosure reported the vulnerabilities to the Banks who ignored the vulnerability. The Central Bank of Iran maintained even after the exposure, that the threat is not serious.Hope RBI acts differently if a similar situation develops in India. Report

US$ 1 million hacked in Brokerage Firm

April 20: Hackers in USA have been reported to have hacked into retail accounts of a brokerage firm and initiated false transactions to siphon off over US $ 1 million. A Russian residing in New York has been arrested. Though similar frauds might not have been reported in India, risk of such frauds are also relevant and SEBI should undertake a customer survey to identify "Suspicious" transactions which could be indicative of such frauds.  Report

GOI issues "Advisory" to State Governments on Cyber Crimes against Children

April19: In an unusual move, an advisory appears to have been issued by Government of India to State Governments regarding handling of Cyber Crimes against Children. The advisory talks of undercover operations and action to be taken under Sec 69A etc. The implications of the advisory are many and needs detailed examination. The advisory

Privacy Bill Panel to submit its report by June 2012

April 14: The panel formed by the Planning Commission to study the Privacy Bill and give its recommendations to the DIT is expected to give its reprot by June 2012. Headed by a retired Delhi High Court Judge Ajit P Shah the committee has a sub group headed by Som Mittal of NASSCOM which will submit its recommendations to the Committee. Report

Six Firms Remain in the Content blocking Litigation

April 14: Out of the 22 firms which were originally named in the suit in Delhi High Court regarding the responsibility for removal of "Objectionable content" hosted on their resources, all but 6 firms have been taken out of the purview of the litigation. The six firms remaining are, Facebook (India and US), Google Inc, Orkut, Youtube and Blogspot (through Google Inc CEO Larry Page). Related Article

Why Mobile Devices are inherently unsafe for Banking

April 14: It is always a matter of pride and joy to take note that technology in the form of mobiles has revolutionalized life on earth. However when it comes to secure transactions on the virtual world, we need to remember that mobiles were not built for secure communications. Unless special efforts are taken by the users to impart encryption over and above what the service provider provides, mobile communication should be considered vulnerable from security point of view for applications such as Banking. This article highlights the point

While individuals may overlook these considerations, the regulators should not. Hope the message is reaching the right persons.

Politicians discredit ITA 2008

April 13: By misusing the provisions of ITA 2008, and using it mainly to curb political criticism, political parties appear to be discrediting the law itself. When it comes to genuine action required under the Act such as activating the CAT, there is no hurry on the part of the Government. However when it comes to muzzling the expression of criticism of the politicians, there appears to be a sudden realization that there is Cyber Law in India. Right thinking persons need to get together and discuss how this issue can be resolved. If this trend is not curbed we will be seeing a replay of the Emergency days.

Joint Data Base to prevent Mobile thefts

April 13: US mobile operators are reported to have agreed to create a joint data base of mobile phones to pevent stolen mobile phones from being used. This is an urgent requirement in India also since this will be a great disincentive for mobile phone theft. In India, using a stolen mobile phone is an offence under Section 66B of ITA 2008 and carries a 3 year impriosnment. The offence is considered as cognizable. There are hundreds of such offences being committed each day in different parts of the country. Hence there is an urgent need for action to trace and block stolen mobiles across India. This will also help in anti terrorist/Naxalite activities of the law enforcement. The WSJ  report

Mr Kothimeer gets and Aadhar Number !!!

April 13: It is reported that an Aadhar card number  4991 1866 5246 has been issued to Mr Kothimeer S/o Mr Palav (Biryani), Mamidikaya Vuru (Village Raw Mango), of Jambuladinne in Anantapur district. For the sake of clarification, "Kothimeer" is "Coriander" (Kottambari). The photograph is said to be of a "Mobile Number". The incident indicates how the Aaadhar enumerations are happennign across the country. In the informed circles, there is little respect for Aadhar and the Government is spending crores of rupees of public money for a cause which appears to have no sanctity left. What credibility does the system has if such instances are being reported. The DH  report

"Cutting Edge Technologies"..and Rs 11 lakhs lost!

April 9: In yet another Phishing Fraud and involving Axis Bank, a customer in Kerala lost Rs 11.14 lakhs. The fraud involved the fraudster obtaining a duplicate SIM card and defeating the two factor authentication. Axis Bank as expects claims that they have implemented "Cutting Edge Technologies" and hence not responsible for the fraud. Only Courts need to tell if the claim of cutting edge technologies is true or is only a fraudulent claim... Report in IE

How Much Money is lost through Phishing in India?

March 31: Today is the end of a financial year for Indian Banks. It is time for them to draw their annual reports and submit it to both RBI and its shareholders. One essential information missing from Bank reports it the extent of loss in E Banking frauds. RSA recently stated that the losses suffered by Indian enterprises in 2011 through Phishing was of the order of Rs 172 crores. In an RTI based information releassed by RBI by DNA, Mumbai, it was stated that during 2010-11, the losses on E Banking were Rs 467 crores in Citi Bank, Rs 298 crores in SBI, Rs 112 crores in ICICI Bank and Rs 39 crores in HSBC. (See here) According to another rough estimate by Symantec, phishing related losses in India was of the order of Rs 6500 crores.

Naavi.org has been fighting for "Safe E Banking" and advocating that Banks which cannot provide safety in Internet Banking should be barred from providing Internet Banking service. In this connection demand has been already made on RBI to cancel the licenses of one branch each of ICICI Bank and Punjab National Bank. However RBI has maintained a royal silence.

Naavi has also brought to public attention the continued vulnerabilities in E Banking as demonstrated by Mr K S Yash, a security consultant in Bangalore. The videos of a live demonstration before a group of experts have also been submitted to CERT IN and informed to RBI. Invitations have been sent to both RBI and CERT IN  to take the demonstration directly and initiate action to restore the confidence of the public in E Banking. ... We are awaiting a positive response from both of them.

Under this background, one must question the wisdom of Banks and RBI in hiding the real information of how much money is being lost by Indian Banks through Phishing and any form of E Banking frauds, whether they are being reported to RBI as per the RBI's Fraud reporting guidelines?, Whether the losses are recovered out of insurance as per the RBI's Internet Bankign guidelines of June 14, 2001? If not why RBI is silent on the Bank's recovering the money from the hapless customers?, Why DIT is barring legal remedies in such cases by not appointing a chair person for Cyber Appellate Tribunal since last June?, Why DIT and the Government of Karnataka has not been able to address the anomalous situation created by the IT Secretary of Karnataka deciding that no cases can be brought before him against any Banks?, Why RBI is tolerating the rogue behaviour of Banks in ignoring its guidelines both of June 14 2001 and the more recent Gopala Krishna Committee report? Why RBI is unable to notify the recommendations of the Damodaran Committee report?, Why RBI is silent on our request to apply KYC failure fines to create an E Banking insurance Fund?, Why our Ministers Kapil Sibal, Mr Sachin Pilot as well as the PM are unable to respond to our complaints? etc.

Naavi.org vows to start a fresh campaign on "Protecting E Banking Customers" and invites Consumer activists all over India to join in this campaign.  I invite support and comments at naavi@vsnl.com.

For Articles of Earlier Date Browse through Archives



PR Syndicate honours 'Cyber Law Guru of India', Na.Vijayashankar

PR Syndicate, (an organization of Corporate PR Professionals in Chennai,)  celebrated its First Anniversary on 20th January 2007 at Russian Cultural Centre. On the occasion, "Award of Excellence in Public Life"  was presented to 'Cyber Law Guru of India' Na.Vijayashankar...More


  What is Naavi.org?

Naavi.org is India's premier portal on Cyber Law. It is not only an information portal containing information on several aspects concerning Information Technology Law in India but also represents the focal point of several services around Cyber Law carried on by Naavi.

The first such service is the Cyber Law College a virtual Cyber Law education center in India which provides various courses on Cyber Law.

The second key service is the Cyber Evidence Archival center which provides a key service to help administration of   justice in Cyber Crime cases.

The third key service is the domain name look-alikes dispute resolution service which provides a unique solution for websites with similar looking domain names to co exist.

The fourth key service is the online mediation and arbitration service another unique global service.

The fifth key service is the CyLawCom service which represents the Cyber Law Compliance related education, audit and implementation assistance service.

Additionally, Naavi.org is in the process of development of four sub organizations namely the Digital Society Foundation, Naavi.net, International Cyber Law Research Center and Cyber Crime Complaints and Resolution Assistance Center. Digital Society Foundation is a Trust formed with the objective of representing the voice of Netizens in various fora and work like an NGO to protect their interests. Naavi.net is meant to develop a collaborative distributed network of LPO consultants. International Cyber Law Research Center would support research in Cyber Laws and Cyber Crime Complaints and Resolution Assistance Center would try to provide some support to victims of Cyber Crimes.

Together, Naavi.org represents a "Cyber Law Vision" that goes beyond being a mere portal. Started in 1997, when the concept of Cyber Law was new across the globe, consistent efforts over the last decade has brought Naavi.org to the beginning of "Phase 2" in which the services are ready to reach out to a larger section. This is recognized as the phase of collaborations and growth by association. Naavi.org will therefore be entering into a series of associations to develop each dimension of its vision with an appropriate partner. Individuals, Organizations and Commercial houses which have synergistic relationship with the activities of Naavi.org are welcome to join hands in commercial and non commercial projects of Naavi.org.


If you would like to know  more about Naavi, the information is available here.

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