Ch Title
- Preamble
1 Preliminary
2 Digital and Electronic Signature
3 Electronic Governance
4 Attribution, Acknowledgement Despatch of Electronic Records
5 Secure Electronic Records and Secure Digital Signatures
6 Regulation of Certifying Authorities
7 Electronic  Signature Certificates
8 Duties of Subscribers
9 Penalties and Adjudication
10 The Cyber Appellate Tribunal
11 Offences
12 Network Service Providers Not to be liable in Certain cases
12A Examiner of Electronic Evidence
13 Miscellaneous

Amendments to Other Acts

Part III Indian Penal Code
Part IV Indian Evidence Act


1 Excluded Documents
2 Electronic Signature Procedure


  Notes on clauses
  Compendium of Rules


Section No







Short Title, Extent, Commencement and Application






This Act may be called the Information Technology Act, 2000. [As Amended by Information technology (Amendment) Act 2008]

P.S: Information Technology (Amendment) Bill 2006 was amended by Information Technology Act Amendment Bill 2008 and in the process, the underlying Act was renamed as Information Technology (Amendment)  Act 2008 herein after referred to as ITAA 2008.






It shall extend to the whole of India and, save as otherwise provided in this Act, it applies also to any offence or contravention hereunder committed outside India by any person.






 It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the commencement of that provision.

[Act notified with effect from October 17, 2000. Amendments vide ITAA-2008 notified with effect from October 27, 2009]






(Substituted Vide ITAA-2008)

Nothing in this Act shall apply to documents or transactions specified in the First Schedule by way of addition or deletion of entries thereto.





  (Inserted vide ITAA-2008)

Every notification issued under sub-section (4) shall be laid before each House of Parliament












In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,






"Access" with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions means   gaining entry into, instructing or communicating with the logical,   arithmetical, or memory function resources of a computer, computer system or   computer network;






"Addressee" means a person who is intended by the originator to receive   the electronic record but does not include any intermediary;






"Adjudicating Officer" means adjudicating officer appointed under   subsection (1) of section 46;






"Affixing Electronic Signature" with its grammatical variations and cognate  expressions means adoption of any methodology or procedure by a person for the  purpose of authenticating an electronic record by means of  Electronic Signature;


      (da) "Appellate Tribunal" means the Appellate Tribunal referred to in sub-section (1) of section 48: (inserted vide Finance Act 2017-31/3/2017)  





"Appropriate Government" means as respects any matter.



enumerated in List II of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution;



relating to any State law enacted under List III of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, the State Government and in any other case,

(I) relating to relevant provision, or a computer resource, which is controlled by the respective Ministry or Department of the Central Government, such Ministry or Department; or
(II) not covered under sub-clause (I) (Inserted vide Janviswas Act-2022)

the Central Government;






"Asymmetric Crypto System" means a system of a secure key pair consisting   of a private key for creating a digital signature and a public key to verify  the digital signature;






"Certifying Authority" means a person who has been granted a license to   issue a Electronic Signature Certificate under section 24;






"Certification Practice Statement" means a statement issued by a  Certifying Authority to specify the practices that the Certifying Authority  employs in issuing Electronic Signature Certificates;


      (ha) "Communication Device" means Cell Phones, Personal Digital Assistance (Sic), or combination of both or any other device used to communicate, send or transmit any text, video, audio, or image. (Inserted Vide ITAA 2008)  





"Computer" means any electronic, magnetic, optical or other high-speed  data processing device or system which performs logical, arithmetic, and  memory functions by manipulations of electronic, magnetic or optical  impulses, and includes all input, output, processing, storage, computer  software, or communication facilities which are connected or related to the  computer in a computer system or computer network;






(Substituted vide ITAA-2008)

"Computer Network" means the interconnection of one or more Computers  or Computer systems or Communication device through- 


the use of satellite, microwave, terrestrial line,wire,wireless or other communication  media; and


terminals or a complex consisting of two or more interconnected computers or communication device whether or not the interconnection is continuously maintained;






 "Computer Resource" means computer, communication device, computer system, computer network,  data, computer database or software;






"Computer System" means a device or collection of devices, including input   and output support devices and excluding calculators which are not  programmable and capable of being used in conjunction with external files,  which contain computer programmes, electronic instructions, input data, and output data, that performs logic, arithmetic, data storage and retrieval, communication control and other functions;






"Controller" means the Controller of Certifying Authorities appointed under sub-section (7) of section 17;






"Cyber Appellate Tribunal" means the Cyber Appellate * Tribunal   established under sub-section (1) of section 48 (* "Regulations" omitted) (omitted vide Finance Act 2017-31/3/2017)


      (na) (Inserted vide ITAA-2008)

"Cyber cafe" means any facility from where access to the internet is offered by any person in the ordinary course of business to the members of the public.

      (nb) (Inserted Vide ITAA 2008)

"Cyber Security" means protecting information, equipment, devices, computer, computer resource, communication device and information stored therein from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction.






"Data" means a representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts   or instructions which are being prepared or have been prepared in a formalized   manner, and is intended to be processed, is being processed or has been   processed in a computer system or computer network. ,.and may be in any form   (including computer printouts magnetic or optical storage media, punched   cards, punched tapes) or stored internally in the memory of the computer;






"Digital Signature" means authentication of any electronic record by a  subscriber by means of an electronic method or procedure in accordance with  the provisions of section 3;






"Digital Signature Certificate" means a Digital Signature Certificate issued under sub-section (4) of section 35;






"Electronic Form" with reference to information means any information generated, sent, received or stored in media, magnetic, optical, computer memory, micro film, computer generated micro fiche or similar device;






"Electronic Gazette" means official Gazette published in the electronic form;






"Electronic Record" means data, record or data generated, image or sound  stored, received or sent in an electronic form or micro film or computer generated micro fiche;


      (ta) (Inserted vide ITAA-2006)

"electronic signature" means authentication of any electronic record by a subscriber by means of the electronic technique specified in the second schedule and includes digital signature

      (tb) (Inserted vide ITAA-2006)

"Electronic Signature Certificate" means an Electronic Signature Certificate issued under section 35 and includes Digital Signature Certificate"






"Function", in relation to a computer, includes logic, control, arithmetical process, deletion, storage and retrieval and communication or telecommunication from or within a computer;




"Indian Computer Emergency Response Team" means an agency established under sub-section (1) of section 70 B  





"Information" includes data, message, text, images, sound, voice, codes, computer programmes, software and databases or micro film or computer generated micro fiche; (Amended vide ITAA-2008)






(Substituted vide ITAA-2008)

"Intermediary" with respect to any particular electronic records, means any person who on behalf of another person receives, stores or transmits that record or provides any service with respect to that record and includes telecom service providers, network service providers, internet service providers, web hosting service providers, search engines, online payment sites, online-auction sites, online market places and cyber cafes. 






"Key Pair", in an asymmetric crypto system, means a private key and its  mathematically related public key, which are so related that the public key can verify a digital signature created by the private key;






 "Law" includes any Act of Parliament or of a State Legislature, Ordinances   promulgated by the President or a Governor, as the case may be. Regulations   made by the President under article 240, Bills enacted as President's Act  under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of article 357 of the Constitution and   includes rules, regulations, bye-laws and orders issued or made there under






"License" means a license granted to a Certifying Authority under section   24;






 "Originator" means a person who sends, generates, stores or transmits any   electronic message or causes any electronic message to be sent, generated,   stored or transmitted to any other person but does not include an intermediary;






 "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;






 "Private Key" means the key of a key pair used to create a digital  signature;






"Public Key" means the key of a key pair used to verify a digital  signature and listed in the Digital Signature Certificate;






"Secure System" means computer hardware, software, and procedure that -: 


are reasonably secure from unauthorized access and misuse;


provide a reasonable level of reliability and correct operation;


are reasonably suited to performing the intended functions; and


adhere to generally accepted security procedures;






"Security Procedure" means the security procedure prescribed under  section 16 by the Central Government;






"Subscriber" means a person in whose name the Electronic Signature  Certificate is issued;






"Verify" in relation to a digital signature, electronic record or  public key, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions means to  determine whether 


the initial electronic record was affixed with the digital signature   by the use of private key corresponding to the public key of the  subscriber;


the initial electronic record is retained intact or has been altered since such electronic record was so affixed with the digital signature.






Any reference in this Act to any enactment or any provision thereof shall, in relation to an area in which such enactment or such provision is not in force, be construed as a reference to the corresponding law or the relevant provision of the corresponding  law, if any, in force in that area.